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LX               THE TIMURID MONARCHS            219

throne with a cousin, Abdulla Mirza? whom with the aid
of the Uzbegs he succeeded in killing. He then engaged
in a long struggle for power, and by A.H. 870 (1465)
his authority was established in Transoxiana, Northern
Persia, and Afghanistan. Two years later he invaded
Azerbaijan with a powerful army, but Uzun Hasan, the
"White Sheep" chief, cut off his supplies by raiding
tactics and utterly defeated him. He was handed over
to Yadgar Mirza, son of Shah Rukh and Gauhar Shad,
and to avenge the death of the latter at his hands was

The Last Princes of the Timurid Dynasty.  Sultan
Ahmad, Abu Said's eldest son and successor, had to face
frequent revolts, the southern provinces throwing off
their allegiance, while his brother Omar Shaykh, father
of Baber, defied him successfully in- Ferghana. Despite
this, the close of his long reign of twenty-seven years
was looked back to with regret after his death, more
especially in Bokhara, where he had erected many splendid
buildings.                                     , ^ .

Sultan Husayn, the patron of Jamijbf Mirkhond, and
of Behzad the painter, was the last Prince of the Timurid
dynasty. He summoned Baber to aid him in a campaign
against Shaybani Khan, the Uzbeg chief who had recently
appeared on the scene. To this fact we owe a vivid
account of the monarch and his court. Sultan Husayn
is described in the immortal Memoirs of Baber as a lively,
pleasant man, whose temper was rather hasty and whose
language was in accordance with his temper. He often
engaged sword in hand in fight, and no member of the
race of Timur ever equalled him in the use of the
scimitar. He had a turn for poetry, and many of his
verses are far from bad. Although not without dignity,
he was inordinately fond of keeping fighting rams and of
amusing himself with flying pigeons and cock-fighting.
Baber goes on to say that the age of Sultan Husayn was
certainly a wonderful age, and abounded with eminent men.
Some of these will be referred to in the next chapter.

a^ or " son of an Amir," signifies u Prince " when it follows the name. When
it precedes it, the meaning is almost equivalent to our "esquire," although it is specially
applied to secretaries or clerks.